Drawing deposit of Yamneko

“Dude, suckin’ at something is the first step to being sorta good at something.”

Detailed Hair Painting for Portraits, And Some Other Stuff

darthfar:

image

Disclaimer: I am a self-taught artist with obsessive compulsive tendencies and a psychotic need for absolute control. Some of the ‘tips’ or methods below may therefore be misleading, unhelpful, or downright bad. I apologise in advance.

[This write-up is based on the following painting I posted earlier: Light and Knuckle Dusters. I decided to go with this picture to illustrate this post because of all the different hair/fur textures available.]

EDIT: I just realised that Tumblr mysteriously downsized all my pictures. I’ve added links to bigger version of them. Just click on the images.

———————————————————————————————-

Where to start. Locks, thatches, bristles, beards, fur, manes… all manner of stuff that sprout from hair follicles, all with different textures and consistencies. And - unless you’re remarkably patient - probably the biggest annoyance you’ll face when painting an otherwise comfortably detailed portrait. (Especially when there’s as much of it as much of the damn stuff as there is in this painting!). 

Anyway….

Some Basic Crap

For a start, here are the brushes and colours I used for the Dwalin portrait:

image

To be honest, that first hard round brush is the one I use most of all (although I will usually add some softness to it if I’m painting really soft, wispy locks of hair), whether it’s painting hair or skin or metal, with textured ones used only sparingly, usually to lay down a foundation for me to build upon. The reason is this: unless used carefully, strokes from custom brushes can look awfully stiff, especially if you’re laying down whole locks of hair. Sure, there are people who can pull it off. I’m not one of them - and besides, it takes control away from me, and I go berserk when that happens. LOL.

Here’s the thing about the colours I use: I don’t mix complete new palettes for each new painting I do! What I actually do have are several different palettes I made way back when, that I use as a base. If I need a new colour for something, I actually mix the colour manually on the painting with the colours that I have, until I get what I want. (Did I not mention something about bad advice???).

[And why all the strange colours popping up? Because hair’s never just shades of brown/red/yellow/whatever; it’ll always be influenced by the colour of the light hitting it, and the colour of things around it. Sticking to only browns for brown hair, for example, will only cause said hair/fur to look flat and boring.]

One thing I do when painting is: I lay on the colours in thin layers at very low opacity, rather than at medium to high and *then* use a brush to blend the colours. This is why:

image

The first example is what happens when I blend two colours by laying the second (lighter) one on top of the first in very thin layers. The second is what happens when I grab a blending brush and force the two colours to merge. You see that region of mysteriously hypersaturated orange that mysteriously appears in the second example? It annoys the hell out of me. Low-opacity painting is tedious as hell, but it gives me absolute control over what colours come out; the only time I’ll surrender and sparingly use the water blender is when two areas insist on maintaining a border.

(Again, I know there are people who can make blending work, and I salute you people because I can’t).

A Couple of General Rules About Painting Hair

(that you probably know about already but what the hey)

Whether you’re doing it painty or uber-realistic, the rule of thumb is basically the same: work your way up from the bottom. That means: from dark to light, and from the lowest locks to the topmost ones. It may not be so bad if you’re not going for serious detail, but if you try to detail locks from the top down, it will show. Unless you paint it on different layers and erase the errant bits. I prefer to do it in order. (Also, I always paint hair on a single layer, anyway).

Also, depending on the coarseness of hair/fur, you may or may not even see individual strands at all. (And again, this depends on your level of detail. Yes, you can see just about every last one in certain areas for *this* painting, but that’s because I’m doing it at 14” x 10”, at 300 dpi - which means that Dwalin’s head at full size is bigger than my own. Creepy). Soft hair falls in flowy locks, whereas oily hair tends to hang in strings, but unless you’re committing yourself to serious detail, the only strands you’ll actually have to paint are probably the errant ones, unless the hair is supposed to look really dry. Coarse hair - like in beards - on the other hand, are more readily distinguished as individual strands.

[You should probably always throw in some errant locks and flyaway hair anyway. Because no matter how you try to tame your hair, there’ll always be a small degree of disorder.]

One last note: highlights. When bringing out single strands of hair, you do *not* want to lay the highlight consistently down the entire stand. It just looks stiff and horrible. Instead, paint on the lighter colours as a gradient, with the area that’s closest to the light source being the brightest, and then scatter bits of light elsewhere on the strand. Also, two strands crossing one another tend to go PING at the intersection point.

image

Short Tufts

Whether it’s human hair or animal fur, I treat short tufts the same way: first by laying on the darkest colour I’m prepared to go, then roughly laying the locks in lighter colours, before moving in for the detail. There’s quite a number of errant locks because this is supposed to be ruffled fur pulled out from under the straps. Remember: locks tend to taper off! (this is especially noticeable when said hair/fur is mussed up a little).

image

Stiff Thatches

This is about the only time I’ll actually break out that speckly brush in generous doses, since the fur on the edges of Dwalin’s cape are short and coarse, and do actually lie more or less in parallel tufts (although detailing will still - always - be done with the hard round brush). The hard round brush is used to lay the base colours first, though. (Never start with textured brushes!!). Note that in #2, the fur came out too red/pink and too light, but then I fixed it by adding green in #3. More on this later, under Fixing Colours.

image

Unruly Hair/Fur

When painting highly detailed medium length mussy locks/tufts of hair/fur, once again I start by blocking in the general colours - but then switch to a really small brush and start adding highly unruly strands to the lighter bits, before moving to the locks/tufts on top. This helps add to the feeling of the kind of natural messiness you get when said hair/fur has been blown around quite a bit by the wind. (Plus that messy lower layer helps give the locks at the top texture, if you  build up the latter in thin layers of colour).

image

Long Facial Hair

… is an awesome opportunity to switch off your brain and just scribble. Of course, you still have to lay on the base colours and rough out the flow of said facial hair, but then you can just go straight to a small brush and let your hand take over while your grey matter takes a well-deserved rest. 

image

Still Not Enough Details For You?

Here’s something I picked up from a Linda Bergkvist tutorial that works wonders when it comes to kicking up the detail a notch: grab a very small brush (1-2px), set the opacity to very low, pick your brightest colours and just scribble all over the hair you’ve painted. It looks horrible at 100%, but it’ll look great when you zoom out. Really.

One Last Note: Fixing Colours

Even when I’m (supposedly) done with all that hair, I’ll go back and add dashes of other colours in areas (at low opacity!!!). Sometimes it’s to liven things up, and sometimes it’s because certain areas come out too pink or yellow, and it’s easier to just fix the entire section by painting over it later than try to get the colours absolutely right the first time.

Which brings us to… what happens if you’re painting a section of hair, and it comes out the wrong colour?

The problem with fixing areas that are too red/pink (and this applies to skin as well, and … well, basically any other bit that needs fixing, actually) is that if you simply try to lay on the “right” colour on top of the offending bit, the colours might still come out too red/pink. To solve this problem: add a non-warm colour first - unsaturated green is a good colour, if your painting’s in warm hues - before laying on the actual colour you want. (Or, if you’re only looking to tone down a finished section, just the non-warm colour). An interesting note: when I told a friend of mine (who’s a cosmetologist) about using this method to fix skin, she told me that it was pretty much how they fixed blemishes when applying makeup. LOL.

[Well, you could also use the clone tool, I guess. I refuse to do it, though.]

An illustration of laying on the “right” colour (unsaturated yellow ochre) straight on vs laying on green first:

image

[See the section on Stiff Thatches, where I messed up the colours. Notice that the ‘fixing’ colour I used was dark green.]

[Of course, if the problem is too awful, you could just paint right over everything and start over again. That’s my Golden Rule of Painting, by the way: never be so attached to anything that you can’t bear to throw it out!]

Tl;dr

Thanks, if you’ve gotten this far, and I hope I haven’t made your brains ooze out from your ears. It’s sometimes hard to know when I make sense and when I’m simply babbling incoherently. ;)

(via myfemalegaze)

conceptcookie:

The 115 Citizen Hand Photos for References are up and ready for you guys to download! Check them out here:http://cgcookie.com/concept/2013/02/28/concept-cookie-resources-photo-references/

(via myfemalegaze)

yamneko:

I got a request for King Thranduil and a request for a train… so have a tiny Thranduil riding a train grumpily! 

yamneko:

I got a request for King Thranduil and a request for a train… so have a tiny Thranduil riding a train grumpily! 

tomscholes:

These will come in handy, thanks Daniel !
He’s got another sheet on his tumblr you might also want :)

(Source: noniol, via myfemalegaze)

mootecky said: That after effects animated Eevee IS THE MOST ADORABLE THING I'VE EVER SEEN!!! AAAA and if it's not too much to ask, can I ask where you placed the puppet joints on the paws? O: When I try it on my own it gets distorted too much ;; w ;; Keep up the awesome works!!!!

katieomeara:

Ahhhh, thank you! And sorry for taking ages to reply here, I made all the images below like a few minutes after you sent this ask, then my internet decided that it didn’t like the idea of uploading things, and then I just completely forgot to try again later. Aaaa. 

So yeah, here’s a break down of where all the pins went. In the legs, I pretty much put a pin wherever there’d be a bone joint in a typical bipedal animal. The placement of the anchor points were all very important too, as I also used the standard transformations (scale, rotate, position, etc) to get the look that I wanted.  

I still made one or two mistakes though. as you can see, the soles of the feet are supposed to be fairly flat. But the final thing ended up slightly concave like this. (for some reason, tumblr’s only letting me upload one image in this ask, so there’s a link) 

I do know how to fix that problem though. I should’ve starched the base of the feet. Simple solution, but went totally forgotten by me. 

So yeah, that’s about it! Thanks for asking! 

Oh, also, Ross Plaskow has some great tutorials on his youtube. I’d totally recommend looking at his stuff. 

sycophantism:

uber-chunks:

caitercates:

vanoty:

For Windows.

My friends and I occasionally have this problem so I’ve taught them this simple method that takes less than a minute as opposed to waiting several for your computer to restart(especially if it’s slow).

What’s great about this method is that sometimes restarting your computer wont fix the problem, but this usually will.

MAKE SURE YOU CLOSE ALL YOUR ART APPS.

This is important, otherwise the changes wont take effect. If it doesn’t work the first time, try again, sometimes it takes restarting it more than once.

For Windows 8, search for “services.msc” in your apps and click on the result. Continue from there!

Now go draw, babies!

THANK YOU DEAR LORD THANK YOU

GOD BLESS U TUMBLR USER  VANOTY 

Alternatively for Windows 7, click on your task bar and go to “Star Task Manager”, then tab over to Services and click on the “Services…” button at the bottom right.

(via lacepockets)

yamneko:

The outer senshi! First set

yamneko:

The outer senshi! First set

mylittledoxy:

Laying down the groundwork for future tutorials on the subject.Support me on patreon for weekly psds and videos! http://www.patreon.com/doxydoo
Full size here http://mldoxy.deviantart.com/art/Shiny-Things-446808360

mylittledoxy:

Laying down the groundwork for future tutorials on the subject.

Support me on patreon for weekly psds and videos! http://www.patreon.com/doxydoo

Full size here http://mldoxy.deviantart.com/art/Shiny-Things-446808360

(via myfemalegaze)

yamino:

mooncalfe:

yopatrick:

Some good tips about comic lettering from Nate Piekos of Blambot.com

every time i letter i break all of these rules. >:D

I was taught most of these at SCAD, and I use most of them… but rules, as always, are made for breaking. You’re the artist, you can use your own judgement on what will look good in your comic!

onisuup:

image

pixelling is fun! | dA 

(via pixel-picnic)

emmyc:

wannabeanimator:

The Boxtrolls (2014) | Behind the Scenes

via Animation Magazine:

  • 1 week; the average amount of time for an animator to complete 3.7 seconds of footage
  • 3.5 inches, the cuff-to-cuff measurement of baby Eggs’ sweater (created on an embroidery machine to produce irregular lines, like a hand-knitted garment). His little socks are only ⅝” long
  • 4 scenes per week was the goal for each animator
  • 14 different fabrics were used in Lord Portley-Rind’s white hat
  • 24 kinds of weeds were created for backgrounds by the greens department
  • 55 different sculpts of prop cheeses were made; different scale sizes were needed for wide, medium and close shots

The 7th image… oh man..how do they animate water so that the wave lights animate alongside the character animation?? Is that some 3D printed water right there that they switch out over and over??? A light projection thru glass? Dying to know how it works. Everything about how Laika makes movies is real actual magic

(via runtmonkey)

yamneko:

The inner senshi! I wasn’t going to color it originally, but felt it did. I probably should have adjusted their heights to be right toooooo ah well. 

yamneko:

The inner senshi! I wasn’t going to color it originally, but felt it did. I probably should have adjusted their heights to be right toooooo ah well. 

iammissanna:

tzikeh:

the-fault-in-our-wifi:

oh my fucking god

Everyone go home. The internet is over.

Okay, you know what? I just reblogged this but I wanna get geeky over it. ‘Cause this is some high-class humor right here, and if you don’t get that you need to be educated so here I am about to do the thing you’re not supposed to do and explain the joke, because I’m just really impressed by this joke’s construction, okay?
So back in Paris in the 1920s, the surrealist movement in art was just starting to take off. The surrealist movement was born from the dadaist movement, which was a response to strict societal ideas of what was “art” and what wasn’t. The dadaists made a lot of works to try and challenge society’s ideas of what art even was in the first place, and this continued on into the more sophisticated abstract works of surrealism.
One such artist, Rene Magritte (also known for his paintings of people with invisible heads, or with fruit for heads), painted a work called "The Treachery of Images," depicting a pipe, and underneath the words (in french) “This is Not a Pipe.” The words were meant to refer to the fact that the painted pipe was literally not a real physical pipe that a viewer could smoke out of, it was just a painting of a pipe.
The painting was extremely meta, and really challenged the habit of allowing oneself to get so immersed in a work of art that one forgets it is a created representation of life, and not actual life. Understanding that alone takes a good deal of abstract thinking ability. And really appreciating and enjoying it requires a certain amount of one’s own frustration with society’s habit of trying to put limits on the definition of art; and being unable to think outside the box and really see something from all possible perspectives, including the perspective of being completely outside the thing.
Now what’s even more fascinating to me is that modern art movements (and I don’t mean “modern art,” I mean actual contemporary art movements that are being led by our peers) are kinda doing the same thing the dadaist movement was doing, but in reaction to the art that came out of the dadaist movement. Things have circled back around again, and abstract surrealist art is now what society has decided “art” is. And our generation doesn’t accept that. Comics, video games, TV shows and movies, graffiti art, web series, even flash mobs, all of these are our generation’s way of saying, “no, society, you don’t get to define art as strictly as ‘if it doesn’t make sense to me it must be brilliant.’ Art can be simple to understand, art can be accessible to all people, art can make you beg to find out what happens next!” And that’s really interesting to me.
Flash forwards to 2006, when rapper Gucci Mane writes a song called "Pillz" in which the phrase “bitch I might be” was coined and used several times. In the song, it’s used as a sarcastic, somewhat indignant but not wholly angry way to say “it’s none of your business,” in response to a beautiful woman in a club accusing the rapper of being high. The phrase became a meme in 2013, following Gucci Mane’s indictment for assaulting a soldier, when a redditor photoshopped a screencap of news coverage of the trial to reference the song. The photoshopped image changed the previous on-screen text to read “Rapper Gucci Mane responds with ‘bitch I might be’ when asked if guilty”. Again, the usage of the phrase is a sarcastic and indignant “none of your business.” The phrase then quickly gained popularity and was added to numerous other photoshopped images.
Now, memes are really cool as a concept anyways, when you think about them hard enough (I mean, the speed at which an entire world full of young people are able to latch onto something as simple as a phrase that they all mutually find funny, and within a matter of days explore every possible usage and implication of that phrase, including how it might relate to other complex systems of knowledge and understanding such as the rich character and plot developments of stories that generate fandoms), but lets put that aside for now and talk about sarcasm, instead.
Because sarcasm is a very sophisticated, complex, and subtle form of wit. It’s a difficult thing to be able to understand, through tone of voice alone, that what someone says, and what they mean, are two different things. And to be able to discern the actual meaning when the words were not said. As wikipedia says, “different parts of the brain must work together to understand sarcasm.” It’s even harder when those words are typed and not spoken audibly, as the reader must imagine the tone in the first place. That’s a lot of brain work involved in even understanding the true meaning behind that simple little phrase.
And sarcasm is popular right now. More than popular, it’s a hallmark of our generation. People have been writing lengthy articles and psychological, sociological, and anthropological studies and musings on why we’re so sarcastic. As this article suggests, it’s because we’re so angry. We’re a generation that was promised a lot and the world didn’t deliver. We’re disenchanted, and jaded, and mad. And we vent that through sarcastic humor. We laugh at things older generations don’t think are funny. We have come to expect so much disappointment, that we no longer afford “serious” things the respect we’re told they deserve. Because we no longer believe they deserve it. As the article states, “We are a generation that believes nothing is sacred. And if nothing is sacred everything becomes profane.”
One could even go so far as to make the argument that the popularity of the statement on the above image is due partially to the attitude amongst today’s youth (especially on tumblr) that one’s own life and choices are one’s own, and not the business of anybody else. This attitude can be seen in everything as simple as the “be yourself” and “follow your dreams” statements many of us were raised on, to the more serious issues we deal with today of discrimination against the LGBTGA+ community, fat shaming, slut shaming, prejudice against muslim people, etc., to political issues like free speech and government invasion of privacy, and even into more subtle ideas present in social media of privacy settings, controlling who gets to see what posts, block and ignore features, and even the philosophy of “nobody can tell you what to post in your own space. If somebody doesn’t like it, they can unfollow.”
None of this would be happening consciously, of course, but we can’t help but be influenced by the world around us. And a phrase whose meaning is essentially “it’s none of your business” is very likely to resonate strongly with a group of people whose fundamental philosophies of polite interpersonal conduct revolve roughly around the same concept.
Taking all this into consideration, this joke is taking a lot of pre-knowledge and putting it all together to kind of say, in a funny way, “stop acting like you have it all figured out, because you don’t. And some things are just not for you to figure out anyway.”
So to sum up, to understand the above image, you must:
have a descent grasp on art history to recognize the original painting.
have good abstract and/or creative thinking skills to understand and appreciate the original painting.
have a good grasp on modern pop culture, internet culture, and current slang and memes (basically, be an active participant in the wider world).
have the complex emotional and interpersonal understanding necessary to understand the subtleties of sarcasm.
understand enough of what’s going on in the world around you that you are disenchanted enough to appreciate sarcastic humor.
participate in our generation’s general philosophy of life and how to interact with other human beings in the world at large.
So basically, if you laughed, you’re smart. :3

iammissanna:

tzikeh:

the-fault-in-our-wifi:

oh my fucking god

Everyone go home. The internet is over.

Okay, you know what? I just reblogged this but I wanna get geeky over it. ‘Cause this is some high-class humor right here, and if you don’t get that you need to be educated so here I am about to do the thing you’re not supposed to do and explain the joke, because I’m just really impressed by this joke’s construction, okay?

So back in Paris in the 1920s, the surrealist movement in art was just starting to take off. The surrealist movement was born from the dadaist movement, which was a response to strict societal ideas of what was “art” and what wasn’t. The dadaists made a lot of works to try and challenge society’s ideas of what art even was in the first place, and this continued on into the more sophisticated abstract works of surrealism.

One such artist, Rene Magritte (also known for his paintings of people with invisible heads, or with fruit for heads), painted a work called "The Treachery of Images," depicting a pipe, and underneath the words (in french) “This is Not a Pipe.” The words were meant to refer to the fact that the painted pipe was literally not a real physical pipe that a viewer could smoke out of, it was just a painting of a pipe.

The painting was extremely meta, and really challenged the habit of allowing oneself to get so immersed in a work of art that one forgets it is a created representation of life, and not actual life. Understanding that alone takes a good deal of abstract thinking ability. And really appreciating and enjoying it requires a certain amount of one’s own frustration with society’s habit of trying to put limits on the definition of art; and being unable to think outside the box and really see something from all possible perspectives, including the perspective of being completely outside the thing.

Now what’s even more fascinating to me is that modern art movements (and I don’t mean “modern art,” I mean actual contemporary art movements that are being led by our peers) are kinda doing the same thing the dadaist movement was doing, but in reaction to the art that came out of the dadaist movement. Things have circled back around again, and abstract surrealist art is now what society has decided “art” is. And our generation doesn’t accept that. Comics, video games, TV shows and movies, graffiti art, web series, even flash mobs, all of these are our generation’s way of saying, “no, society, you don’t get to define art as strictly as ‘if it doesn’t make sense to me it must be brilliant.’ Art can be simple to understand, art can be accessible to all people, art can make you beg to find out what happens next!” And that’s really interesting to me.

Flash forwards to 2006, when rapper Gucci Mane writes a song called "Pillz" in which the phrase “bitch I might be” was coined and used several times. In the song, it’s used as a sarcastic, somewhat indignant but not wholly angry way to say “it’s none of your business,” in response to a beautiful woman in a club accusing the rapper of being high. The phrase became a meme in 2013, following Gucci Mane’s indictment for assaulting a soldier, when a redditor photoshopped a screencap of news coverage of the trial to reference the song. The photoshopped image changed the previous on-screen text to read “Rapper Gucci Mane responds with ‘bitch I might be’ when asked if guilty”. Again, the usage of the phrase is a sarcastic and indignant “none of your business.” The phrase then quickly gained popularity and was added to numerous other photoshopped images.

Now, memes are really cool as a concept anyways, when you think about them hard enough (I mean, the speed at which an entire world full of young people are able to latch onto something as simple as a phrase that they all mutually find funny, and within a matter of days explore every possible usage and implication of that phrase, including how it might relate to other complex systems of knowledge and understanding such as the rich character and plot developments of stories that generate fandoms), but lets put that aside for now and talk about sarcasm, instead.

Because sarcasm is a very sophisticated, complex, and subtle form of wit. It’s a difficult thing to be able to understand, through tone of voice alone, that what someone says, and what they mean, are two different things. And to be able to discern the actual meaning when the words were not said. As wikipedia says, “different parts of the brain must work together to understand sarcasm.” It’s even harder when those words are typed and not spoken audibly, as the reader must imagine the tone in the first place. That’s a lot of brain work involved in even understanding the true meaning behind that simple little phrase.

And sarcasm is popular right now. More than popular, it’s a hallmark of our generation. People have been writing lengthy articles and psychological, sociological, and anthropological studies and musings on why we’re so sarcastic. As this article suggests, it’s because we’re so angry. We’re a generation that was promised a lot and the world didn’t deliver. We’re disenchanted, and jaded, and mad. And we vent that through sarcastic humor. We laugh at things older generations don’t think are funny. We have come to expect so much disappointment, that we no longer afford “serious” things the respect we’re told they deserve. Because we no longer believe they deserve it. As the article states, “We are a generation that believes nothing is sacred. And if nothing is sacred everything becomes profane.”

One could even go so far as to make the argument that the popularity of the statement on the above image is due partially to the attitude amongst today’s youth (especially on tumblr) that one’s own life and choices are one’s own, and not the business of anybody else. This attitude can be seen in everything as simple as the “be yourself” and “follow your dreams” statements many of us were raised on, to the more serious issues we deal with today of discrimination against the LGBTGA+ community, fat shaming, slut shaming, prejudice against muslim people, etc., to political issues like free speech and government invasion of privacy, and even into more subtle ideas present in social media of privacy settings, controlling who gets to see what posts, block and ignore features, and even the philosophy of “nobody can tell you what to post in your own space. If somebody doesn’t like it, they can unfollow.”

None of this would be happening consciously, of course, but we can’t help but be influenced by the world around us. And a phrase whose meaning is essentially “it’s none of your business” is very likely to resonate strongly with a group of people whose fundamental philosophies of polite interpersonal conduct revolve roughly around the same concept.

Taking all this into consideration, this joke is taking a lot of pre-knowledge and putting it all together to kind of say, in a funny way, “stop acting like you have it all figured out, because you don’t. And some things are just not for you to figure out anyway.”

So to sum up, to understand the above image, you must:

  1. have a descent grasp on art history to recognize the original painting.
  2. have good abstract and/or creative thinking skills to understand and appreciate the original painting.
  3. have a good grasp on modern pop culture, internet culture, and current slang and memes (basically, be an active participant in the wider world).
  4. have the complex emotional and interpersonal understanding necessary to understand the subtleties of sarcasm.
  5. understand enough of what’s going on in the world around you that you are disenchanted enough to appreciate sarcastic humor.
  6. participate in our generation’s general philosophy of life and how to interact with other human beings in the world at large.

So basically, if you laughed, you’re smart. :3

(Source: thecitizeninsane, via deniisu)

Daily Life Drawing Session #1 (Free Timed Figure Model Reference)

sakimichan:

My friend linked me to this wonderful youtube life drawing session video it’s great !

wannabeanimator:

Comments from industry artists on the wage-fixing scandal.

(via retrocausal)